Eng: Transformation of sentences 2

Transformation of Sentences: Part-Two


Affirmative Sentence → Negative Sentence

 

Affirmative Sentence কে Negative Sentence এ রুপান্তরের সময় উক্ত Sentence  এর Affirmative শব্দটির Negative রূপ বসাতে হয় এবং Negative শব্দটির আগে “not” বসবে। তবে Sentence এ Always থাকলে Negative শব্দটির আগে “Never” বসাতে হয়।

Affirmative: I shall remember you

Negative: I shall not forget you.

Affirmative: I always agreed with him

Negative: I never disagreed with him.

Rule No 2.

Affirmative Sentence এ যদি “Only” থাকে;

Only (ব্যাক্তির ক্ষেত্রে) → None but

 

Affirmative: Only he can do it.

Negative: None but he can do it.

Only (বস্তুর ক্ষেত্রে)→ Nothing but

 

Affirmative: Only a few toys are needed.

Negative: Nothing but a few toys are needed.

Only (বয়স/সংখ্যার ক্ষেত্রে) → Not more than / not less than

 

Affirmative: He is only 10 years old

Negative: He is not more than 10 years old.

 

Rule No 3:

Affirmative Sentence এ “Must” থাকলে Negative Sentence এ can’t but/ can’t help বসে

Affirmative: Messi must score a goal.

Negative: Messi can’t but score a goal.

 

Rule No 4

Every যুক্ত Affirmative Sentence কে Negative Sentence করতে হলে Every এর পরিবর্তে There is no+ every এর পরের word টি + but + বাকি অংশ বসবে।

Affirmative: Every mother loves her child.

Negative: There is no mother but loves her child.

 

Rule No 5

Affirmative Sentence এ “too….to” থাকলে Negative Sentence এর Structure হবে Subject+ verb+ so+ Adjective + that + Subject + cannot/couldn’t + verb.+ ext..

Affirmative: Bran is too weak to walk

Negative: Bran is so weak that he cannot walk

 

Rule No 6

Affirmative Sentence এ “As soon as” থাকলে Negative Sentence এ No sooner had…..than… নিয়মটি ব্যাবহার করা হয়।  

Affirmative: As soon as the boy saw it, he went away.

Negative: No sooner had the boy seen it than he went away.

 

Rule No 7

Affirmative Sentence এ “Sometimes” থাকলে  তাকে Negative Sentence করতে হলে Sometimes এর পরিবর্তে Always এবং তার পূর্বে not বসে।

Affirmative: My friend sometimes visits me

Negative: My friend does not always visit me

 

Affirmative: A day labourer is sometimes happy

Negative: A day labourer is not always happy.

Rule No 8

Many” যুক্ত কোন Affirmative Sentence কে Negative করতে হলে many এর পরিবর্তে “not a few” বসে।

Affirmative: There are many students in the class

Negative: There are not a few students in the class.

 

Rule No 9

 

A few যুক্ত Affirmative Sentence এ  কে Negative Sentence করতে হলে A few এর পরিবর্তে not many বসে।

Affirmative: I have a few friends

Negative: I have not many friends.

 

Rule No 10

“A little” যুক্তAffirmative Sentence এ  কে Negative Sentence করতে হলে A little এর পরিবর্তে “not much” বসে।

Affirmative: I have a little money. .

Negative: I have not much money.

 

Rule No 11

Much” যুক্ত Affirmative Sentence এ  কে Negative Sentence করতে হলে much এর পরিবর্তে “not a little” বসে।

Affirmative: He has much money.

Negative: He has not a little money.

Rule No 12

কোন Affirmative Sentence এ As….as থাকলে তাকে Negative Sentence করার নিয়মঃ

Affirmative: Shakib & Tamim are as good as Mushfiq

Negative: Shakib and tamim are not less good than Mushfiq

Transformation of Assertive, Interrogative, Imperative, Optative & Exclamatory Sentences

 

অর্থের উপর ভিত্তি করে Sentence ৫ প্রকার।

এখন আমরা এই ৫ প্রকার Sentence এর মধ্যকার Transformation এর কিছু নিয়ম সম্পর্কে জানব।

Assertive → Interrogative

 

Rule 1

 

Assertive Sentence  এর Auxiliary verb টি Sentence এর শুরুতে বসবে এনং তারপর “not” বসবে।

Assertive Sentence Interrogative Sentence
We are Aren’t you?
He is Isn’t he?

Assertive: Mashraffe is playing well today

Interrogative: Isn’t Mashrafee playing well today?

Assertive: He will get the scholarship.

Interrogative: Won’t he get a scholarship?

তবে, Assertive Sentence এ যদি “not” শব্দটি আগে থেকেই থাকে তবে Interrogative Sentence এ “not” বসবে না

Assertive Sentence Interrogative Sentence
We are not Are you?
He is not Is he?

Assertive: Suarez will not play tomorrow.

Interrogative: Will Suarez play tomorrow?

 

Rule 2

 

Assertive Sentence এ কোন Auxiliary Verb না থাকলে Sentence এর শুরুতে Don’t/Doesn’t/Didn’t ইত্যাদি ব্যাবহার করতে হবে।

Assertive: Sakib worked very hard to pass the exam

Interrogative: Didn’t Sakib work hard to pass the exam?

তবে, Assertive Sentence এ যদি “not” শব্দটি থাকে তবে Interrogative Sentence এর শুরুতে “Did/Does/Do” বসবে।

Assertive: Sourav didn’t give me his homework.

Interrogative: Did Sourav give me his homework?

** Interrogative Sentence এ Auxiliary verb Past form  এ থাকলে Principal Verb  Present form এ থাকবে।

 

Rule 3

Assertive: Ridwan never lies

Interrogative: Does Ridwan ever lie?

Assertive: Nihal could not say nothing to Shanto

Interrogative: Could Nihal say anything to Shanto?

 

Rule 4

Assertive: Everybody likes him

Interrogative: Who doesn’t like him?

Assertive: Nobody likes him

Interrogative: Who likes him?

Exclamatory → Assertive

 

Rule 1

 

Assertive Sentence এ কিছু  কিছু word থাকলে Exclamatory Sentence  এ পরিবর্তিত হয়।

Exclamatory Sentence Assertive Sentence
Hurrah!

Example: Hurrah! We have won the match.

It is a matter of joy that

Example: It is a matter of joy that we have won the match.

Alas!

Example: Alas! I have lost all my money

It is a matter of sorrow that

Example: It is a matter of sorrow that I have lost all my money

Fie

Example: Fie! Sadia doesn’t respect others.

It is shameful that

Example: It is shameful that Sadia doesn’t respect others

If / Would that

Example: If I were a bird!

I wish

Example: I wish I were a bird.

Had I

Example: Had I the wings of birds!

I wish I had

Example: I wish I had the wings of birds.

 

Rule 2

Example:                 Exclamatory: How nice the garden is!

                                    Assertive: The garden is very nice.

 

                                   Exclamatory: What a player Messi is!

                                   Assertive: Messi is a great player.

Assertive → Imperative

 

Rule 1

 

Assertive Sentence কে Imperative Sentence এ রুপান্তরের Structure  হলো

Verb এর present form + Verb এর পরের অংশ

তবে শিষ্টতা/ভদ্রতা প্রকাশের জন্য Imperative Sentence এর শুরুতে/শেষে  please/kindly ব্যাবহার করা হয়।

Assertive: You should speak the trust

Imperative: Speak the truth.

Assertive: You open the door

Imperative: Please, open the door.

 

Rule 2

 

Assertive Sentence টি Negative হলে Imperative Sentence এর শুরুতে Do not/ Don’t বসে।

Assertive: You should not go out.

Imperative: Don’t go out.

 

Rule 3

 

Assertive Sentence এর Subject যদি First person অথবা Third person হয় তবে তাকে নিচের নিয়মে Imperative করতে হবে।

Let + Subject এর  Objective form + Verb এর পরের অংশ

Assertive: He plays Football

Imperative: Let him play Football

Assertive: Fahim does not tell a lie

Imperative: Let not Fahim tell a lie.