এইচএসসি ইংরেজী ১ম পত্র

Folk Music

Supported by Matador Stationary
Unit: 14 | Lesson: 2

Folk music consists of songs and music of a community that are uninfluenced by any sophisticated musical rules or any standard music styles. Bangladesh has a heritage of rich folk music which includes both religious and secular songs.
Folk music may be described as that type of ancient music which springs from the heart of a community, based on their natural style of classical music and modern popular songs. Any mode or form created by the combination of tune, voice and dance may be described as music. Thus, the combination of folk song, folk dance and folk tune may be called folk music. For example, Baul songs are a combination of tune, music and dance.

 

Folk music has the following characteristics: (i) It is composed by rural folk in the basis of ancient rules transmitted orally; (ii) These ancient rules of music have not been influenced by classical or modern music; (iii) Folk songs may be sung in groups or individually; (iv) No regular practice is required for folk music; (v) It is composed and performed by illiterate or semi-literate people; (vi) It is a spontaneous expression in easy language, local dialect, and simple tune; (vii) Both words and tune are appealing; (viii) Despite its universal appeal it uses local dialect; (ix) It depends upon nature and the rural environment; (x) It is an explicit manifestation of the joys and sorrows of daily life; (xi) It uses simple and natural rhythms; (xii) It contains a strong emotive expression of human love and separation.

 

In Bangladesh folk music has great variety, with songs being composed on the culture, festivals, views of life, natural beauty, rivers and rural and riverine life. These songs are also about social inequality and poverty, about the material world and the supernatural. Mystical songs have been composed using the metaphors of rivers and boats. Since the country is basically riverine, the Bhatiyali forms an important genre of folk music. Folk music is formed and develops according to the environment. Differences in the natural environment are reflected in the people of the different regions. The dialects too very across the different regions. Bangladeshi folk music, therefore, varies from region to region. Thus there are the northern Bhawaiya, the eastern Bhatiyali and the southwestern Baul Songs.
The culture and the lifestyle of the different tribes have also influenced folk music. Tribes like the Santal, Garo, Hajong, Chakma, Monipuri, Tripuri, Marma etc. have interacted with ethnic Bengali culture and lifestyle over the years. The interaction has been clearly reflected in the richness of folk music.

 

Folk songs may be sung individually or in chorus. Folk songs sung individually include Baul, Bhatiyali, Murshidi, Marfati, while songs sung in chorus include Kabigan, Leto, Alkap and Gambhira. Some songs are regional in character, but others are common to both Bangladesh and West Bengal. Similarly, some songs belong distinctively to one religious community, Hindu or Muslim others cross religious boundaries. Some songs belong exclusively to men, others to women, while some are sung by both men and women. Thus only women compose and sing Bratagan and Meyeli Git, but both men and women participate in the ‘roof-beating’ songs that are sung while beating down and firming rootops.

Different folk songs belonging to different regions of Bangladesh are listed below:
Baul and spiritual songs: Birbhum and Kushtia
Jarigan: Dhaka, Mymensingh, Sylhet, Faridpur, Murshidabad.
Bhawaiya: Cooch Bihar, Rajshahi, Dinajpur, Rangpur, Pabna.
Gambhira: Rajshahi, Malda.
Wedding songs: all regions.
Roof-beating songs: the northern regions of Bangladesh.
Sari: the lower marshy regions of Sylhet and Mymensingh.
Bhatiyali: nearly all regions of Bangladesh.
Pastoral songs: Dhaka, Mymensingh, Faridpur, Sylhet, Habiganj.

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions:


Read the following text and fill in the blanks with suitable word from the box below. There are more words than needed. Make any grammatical change if necessary.





a) We only know that he entered St. John’s College of Cambridge.
b) Robert Herrick, a famous English poet, was born in London, UK.
c) He was reinstated to his post and worked there till his death.
d) Nicholas Herrick suddenly died when Robert was a boy of only five.
e) We do not know anything about his school years.
f) His father Nicholas Herrick was a famous goldsmith of London.
g) There he worked as an apprentice to his uncle in his trade of goldsmith for ten years.
h) After the death of his father, his family shifted to a village in Middlesex.
i) But he was removed from the post by the Puritan government.
j) After taking his graduation, he joined as a Rector of Dean Prior in Devonshire.