এইচএসসি ইংরেজী ২য় পত্র

Transformation of sentences Part 01

Supported by Matador Stationary
(Simple-Complex-Compound) ; (Positive-Comparative-Superlative)

Transformation শব্দটির অর্থ হলো রুপান্তর। সুতরাং, যেকোন এক ধরণের Sentence কে অন্য ধরণের Sentence এ রুপান্তর করাই হলো Transformation of Sentences। তবে রুপান্তরের সময় আমাদের খেয়াল রাখতে হবে যেন Sentence এর মূল ভাব পরিবর্তন না হয়।

অর্থ, গঠন, Degree, হ্যা/না প্রকাশ ইত্যাদির উপর ভিত্তি করে  Sentence কে বিভিন্ন ভাবে সাজানো যায়, তাই Transformation of Sentences ও বিভিন্ন ধরণের হয়ে থাকে।

Transformation of Simple, Complex & Compound Sentences


বন্ধুরা, নিচের Sentence গুলো কোন ধরনের তা বের করতে পারবে?


 

Rule no 01

 

Simple Complex Compound
Gerund দ্বারা শুরু Since/As/When and

Simple: Going to market, he bought a pen.

Complex: As he went to market, he bought a pen.

Compound: He went to market & bought a pen

 

Rule no 02

 

Simple Complex Compound
Subject+Gerund দ্বারা শুরু Since/As/When (ভিন্ন Subject) And (ভিন্ন Subject)

Simple: The weather being cold, we can’t go out

Complex: Since the weather is cold, we can’t go out.

Compound: The weather is cold and we can’t go out.

 

Rule no 03

Simple: He is too poor to buy any food.

Complex: He is so poor that he can’t buy food.

Compound: He is very poor and he can’t buy food.

 

Rule no 04

 

Simple Complex Compound
Inspite of/Despite+Possessive+Gerund Though/Although+Subject+verb+… But

Simple: Inspite of his being poor, he is honest.

Complex: Though he is poor, he is honest.

Compound: He is poor but he is honest.



 

Rule no 05

 

Simple Complex Compound
Sentence এর মাঝে to/In order to + Verb + …. So that/ In order that+ Subject + Can/could/may/might+ varb And + Subject + want/wanted/ to + verb

Simple: He worked hard to earn money.

Complex: He worked hard so that he could earn money.

Compound: He worked hard and he wanted to earn money.

 

Rule no 06

 

Simple Complex Compound
Relative Pronoun + Gerund + ….. Relative Pronoun + who + verb + …. and

Simple: People enjoying fresh air are healthy

Complex: People who enjoy fresh air are healthy.

Compound: People enjoy fresh air and they are healthy.

Rule no 07

 

Simple Complex Compound
Subject + verb + object It is/was + Subject + Relative Pronoun + Subject এর পরের অংশ It is/was + Subject + and

Simple: Health is wealth

Complex: It is health which is wealth.

Compound: It is health and it is wealth.

 

Rule no 08

 

Simple Complex Compound
At the age of + বয়স When + Subject + Is/was + বয়স Subject + is/was + বয়স + and

Simple: At the age of thirteen, Messi came to Barcelona.

Complex: When Messi was thirteen, he came to Barcelona.

Compound: Messi was thirteen and he came to Barcelona.

 

Rule no 09

 

Simple Complex Compound
By + Gerund If যুক্ত affirmative sentence Verb + and + ……

Simple: By studying, you’ll shine in life.

Complex: If you study, you’ll shine in life.

Compound: Study and you’ll shine in life.


নিচের Transformationগুলোর মধ্যে কোনগুলো সঠিক?

 


 

Rule no 10

 

Simple Complex Compound
Without + Gerund If যুক্ত Negative Sentence Verb + or + ……

Simple: Without eating a balanced diet, you will be sick.

Complex: If you don’t eat a balanced diet, you will be sick.

Compound: Eat a balanced diet or you will be sick.

 

Rule no 11

 

Simple Complex Compound
In/at/during + সময় When it + is/was + সময় It + is/was + সময় + and

Simple: In summer, we visit our village.

Complex: When it is summer, we visit our village.

Compound: It is Summer and we visit our village.

 

Rule no 12

 

Simple Complex Compound
…in order to + verb + ….. …that/so that/ in order that/least……. And so

Simple: We eat in order to live.

Complex: We eat so that we can live.

Compound: We eat and so we can live.

 

Rule no 13

 

Simple Complex Compound
…too+ Adjective/Adverb+ enough+ … …so+ Adjective/Adverb+ that+ Affiemative Clause …very+ adjective/adverb + and+ …

Simple: The sum is easy enough to solve for the students.

Complex: The sum is so easy that the students can solve it.

Compound: The sum is very easy and the students can solve it.

 

Rule no 14

 

Simple Complex Compound
Besides../both..+ …while… Not only….but also

Simple: Besides being a good student, he is a good player.

Complex: He is a good student while he is a good player.

Compound: He is not only a good student but also a good player.

 

Transformation of Positive,Comparative & Superlative Sentences

 

Adjective এর Degree এর উপর ভিত্তি করে Sentence ৩ প্রকার।  যথাঃ

 

  • Positive Sentence
  • Comparative Sentence
  • Superlative Sentence

 

Superlative Comparative Positive
One of the Than most other Very few
One of the থাকবে না Than any other No Other

 

বন্ধুরা, Positive,Comparative ও Superlative Sentences এর Transformation  এর ক্ষেত্রে আমাদের প্রথমের প্রদত্ত Sentence টি কোন প্রকারের তা চিহ্নিত করতে হবে। Sentence টি চিহ্নিত করার সবচেয়ে সহজ উপায় হলো Adjective টি কোন রূপে আছে তা লক্ষ্য করা

Shakib Al Hasan is the best all-rounder in the world.

 

(Superlative Sentence)

 

Superlative → Positive

উপরের Sentence টি তে “One of the” না থাকায় এর Positive form এর structure হবে;

No Other +[ Superlative degree]4/[all other/any other ]5এর পরের অংশ + verb + as+ adjective + as + subject

Positive : No other all-rounder in the world is as good as Shakib Al Hasan.

Superlative → Comparative

 

উপরের Sentence টি তে “One of the” না থাকায় এর Comparative form এর structure হবে;Subject + verb + Comparative degree + than + any other/all other + [Superlative degree  এর পরের অংশ]6 /[ No other এর পরের অংশ (Verb এর আগে পর্যন্ত) ]7

Comparative form:  Shakib Al Hasan is better than any other all-rounder in the world.

Messi is one of the best Football players in the history.

(Superlative)

Superlative → Positive

উপরের Sentence টি তে “One of the” থাকায় এর Positive form এর structure হবে;

Very few +[ Superlative degree]4/[most other ]5এর পরের অংশ + plural verb + as+ adjective + as + subject

Positive : Very few Football players in the history are as good as Messi.

Superlative → Comparative

উপরের Sentence টি তে “One of the” থাকায় এর Comparative form এর structure হবে;

Subject + verb + Comparative degree + than + most other + [very few  এর পরের অংশ]6 /[ No other এর পরের অংশ (Verb এর আগে পর্যন্ত) ]7

Comparative form:  Messi is better than most other Football players in the history.