Narration

নিলয় সেদিন একটি সেমিনারে গিয়েছিলো। সেই সেমিনারে প্রধান অতিথি ছিলেন আয়মান সাদিক। নিলয়ের ছোট ভাই, সৌরভ আবার আয়মান সাদিকের অনেক বড় ভক্ত। নিলয় যখন বাসায় ফিরলো তখন সৌরভ তাকে জিজ্ঞাসা করলো সেমিনারে আয়মান সাদিক কী বলেছিলেন। এখন নিলয় দুইভাবে তার ছোট ভাইয়ের প্রশ্নের উত্তর দিতে পারে।

Ayman Sadiq said to the crowd, “You should never stop learning.”

অথবা,

Ayman Sadiq told the crowd that they should never stop learning.

এখানে, প্রথম বাক্যটি Direct Speech ও দ্বিতীয় বাক্যটি Indirect Speech এর উদাহরণ।

Direct Speech এর মূলত তিনটি বৈশিষ্ট্য রয়েছে।

  • লেখার সময় Direct Speech-টি Quotation Mark বা Inverted Comma (“”) এর মধ্যে রাখা হয়। অবশ্য Dialogue লেখার ক্ষেত্রে প্রায়ই Inverted Comma ব্যবহৃত হয় না।
  • Reporting Verb-এর পরে Comma বসে। Dialogue লেখার ক্ষেত্রে Reporting Verb ও Comma-এর প্রয়োজন হয় না।
  • Direct Speech এর প্রথম অক্ষরটি সর্বদাই Capitalized হতে হবে।

Direct Speech Indirect Speech


Narration of Assertive Sentence

Direct: He said, “I do it.”
Indirect: He said that he did it.

Direct: He said, “I am writing letters.”
Indirect: He said that he was writing letters

Direct: He said, “I have passed the examination.”
Indirect: He said that he had passed the examination.

Direct: He said, “I shall play football.”
Indirect: He said that he would play football.

Direct: He said, “I was playing cricket.”
Indirect: He said that he had been playing cricket.”

Reporting Verb-টি Present/Future Tense-এ থাকলে Direct Speech-এর Verb-এর Tense পরিবর্তন হয় না।

Direct: He says, “I am busy”
Indirect: He says that he is busy.

Direct Speech এ অভ্যাসগত বা চিরসত্য কোন বক্তব্য থাকলে তার Tense পরিবর্তন হয় না।

Direct: The teacher said, “The sun rises in the East.”
Indirect: The teacher said that the sun rises in the East.
Direct: Salman said, “I walk for an hour every morning.”
Indirect: Salman said that he walks for an hour every morning.

Reporting Verb-টি Past Tense এ থাকলে সময় বা স্থানবাচক কিছু শব্দের পরিবর্তন হয়।

Direct: The boy said, “I will do the work now.”
Indirect: The boy said that he would do the work then.
Direct: He said, “I went to school yesterday.”
Indirect: He said that he had gone to school the previous day.

তবে একই সময় বা একই জায়গায় Report করা হলে এই পরিবর্তনগুলো হয় না।

Direct speech Reported speech
now then, at that time
today that day
tonight that night
tomorrow the next day/the following day
yesterday the day before/the previous day
last night the night before/the previous night
this that
hence thence
next year the following year, in 2014
age before
thus that way/so
come go
here there

সাধারণত must, ought to এবং should-এর মতো Modal Auxiliary-গুলোর পরিবর্তন হয় না। তবে কিছু ক্ষেত্রে Must-এর পরিবর্তে Had to এবং Should-এর জায়গায় Subject এর Person অনুযায়ী Would বসে।

Direct: He said, “I shall play football.”
Indirect: He said that he would play football.

Direct: She said, “I must go.”
Indirect: She said that she had to go.

Reported Verb-এর সাথে Object থাকলে said to এর পরিবর্তে told ব্যবহার করা শ্রেয়। object না থকলে said to-ই ব্যবহৃত হবে।

Direct: He said to me, “I am writing letters.”
Indirect: He told me that he was writing letters.


Narration of Interrogative Sentence

  • say, tell প্রভৃতি Reporting Verb, Indirect Speech-এ ask/enquire of এ পরিণত হয় এবং এর পরে একটি Object বসে।
  • যদি Direct Speech কোনো Wh- word দিয়ে শুরু হয় তবে সেই শব্দটি Indirect Speech-এ থেকে যায়।
  • তবে Direct Speech যদি কোনো Wh- word দিয়ে শুরু না হয়, সংযোজক শব্দ হিসাবে if বা whether বসে।
  • Indirect Speech-এ প্রশ্নবোধক বাক্যটি বিবৃতিমূলক বাক্যে পরিণত হয়ে যায় এবং Question Mark এর পরিবর্তে Full Stop বসে।

Direct: I said to the man, “Who are you?”
Indirect: I asked the man who he was.

Direct: “Why are you weeping?” the Swallow asked the Prince.
Indirect: The Swallow enquired of the Prince why he was weeping.

Direct: “How did you do that?” they asked Edison.
Indirect: They asked Edison how he had done that.

Direct: “Who was the first man to fly in space?” the teacher asked the student.
Indirect: The teacher asked the student who was the first man to fly in space.

Direct: “Do you know the way to the station?” she said to Mahin.
Indirect: She asked Mahin whether he knew the way to the station.

Direct: I said to the boy, “Did you go to school?”
Indirect: I enquired of the boy if he had gone to school.

Direct: Pritom said, “Maimuna, isn’t the water boiling yet?”
Indirect: Pritom asked Maimuna if the water was not boiling by that time.

Direct: My brother said to me, “Will you not go to the show?”
Indirect: My brother enquired of me whether I would not go to the show. Shall দিয়ে শুরু হওয়া Interrogative Sentence, Indirect Speech-এ Past Tense-এ Would এ পরিণত হয়। কিন্তু কর্তব্য বুঝাতে Should অপরিবর্তিত থাকে।

Tag Question

Direct: He said to me, “You are going home, aren’t you?”
Indirect: He asked me whether it was true that I was going home.
Or, He asked me whether I was going home and assumed that I was.

Narration of Imparative Sentence

  • say, tell প্রভৃতি Reporting Verb অর্থ অনুযায়ী Indirect Speech-এ order/request/advise/ask ইত্যাদিতে পরিণত হয়।
  • মূল Verb-এর পূর্বে to বসে তা infinitive হয়।
  • Negative Imparative-কে Indirect Speech করতে হলে infinitive-এর পূর্বে not বসাতে হয়, আবার not না বসিয়ে forbid/prohibit প্রভৃতি Reporting Verb ব্যবহার করা যায়।
  • Direct Speech-এর Please, sir-জাতীয় শব্দ Indirect Speech-এ পরিহার করা হয় এবং এর পরিবর্তে ‘request’ Reporting Verb কিংবা ‘politely’, ‘kindly’ Adverb ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Direct: Father said to me, “Go home at once.”
Indirect: Father ordered me to go home at once.

Direct: Mother said to him, “Don’t run in the sun.”
Indirect: Mother advised him to not run in the sun.
Or, Mother forbade him to run in the sun.

Direct: I said to him, “Please explain the passage.”
Indirect: I requested him to explain the passage.

Let দিয়ে শুরু হওয়া Imparative Sentence

Direct: Liza said to her friend, “Let us go for a walk.”
Indirect: Liza suggested to her friends that they should go for a walk.

Direct: He said to his companion, “Let us not miss this opportunity.”
Indirect: He proposed to his companions that they should not miss that opportunity.

Direct: I said, “Let him tell the story.”
Indirect: I said that he might tell the story.

Direct: He said, “Let me come in.”
Indirect: He said that he might be allowed to come in.


Let দ্বারা কোনো Suggestion/Proposal বুঝানো হয় Let দ্বারা কোনো Suggestion/Proposal বুঝানো না হয়
Reporting Verb-টি Suggest বা Propose হয়। Imparative form-টি Assertive-এ পরিণত হয় এবং Linker হিসেবে that বসে। Let-কে might বা might be allowed to বা অনুরূপ form-এ রূপান্তর করা হয়।

Must, would, could প্রভৃতি Modal-গুলো Indirect Speech-এ সাধারণত পরিবর্তিত হয় না।
তবে could, would দিয়ে শুরু হওয়া Interrogative Sentence-গুলো সাধারণত কোনো অনুরোধ বুঝিয়ে থাকে। তাই এরা Imeparative Sentence.Direct: He said to me, “You must leave this place.”
Indirect: He told me that I must leave that place.

Direct: I said to her, “Could you give me a cup of tea?”
Indirect: I requested her to give me a cup of tea.

Narration of Exclamatory Sentence

Exclamatory Sentence-কে Indirect Speech-এ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে Alas, Hurrah ইত্যাদি অনুসারে exclaim in grief, exclaim in joy, exclaim wonder ইত্যাদি ব্যবহৃত হয়।

তবে Exclamation-এর প্রকৃতি সম্পর্কে নিশ্চিত হতে না পারলে Reporting Verb হিসেবে শুধু exclaim বা cry out ব্যবহার করাই ভালো।
Exclamatory Sentence-এর অন্যান্য Reporting Verb হলো- swear, shout, applaud ইত্যাদি।

Indirect Speech-এ Exclamatory Sentence-টি Assertive Sentence-এ পরিণত হয় এবং Linker হিসেবে that বসে।

যদি Exclamatory Sentence এর শুরুতে আবেগের তীব্রতা বুঝাতে What বা How দিয়ে শুরু হয় তাহলে তার পরিবর্তে great বা very বসে।

Indirect Speech-এ Exclamation Mark-এর পরিবর্তে Full-Stop বসে।

Direct: The boys said, “Hurrah! We have won the game.”
Indirect: The boys exclaimed in joy that they had won the game.

Direct: He said to me, “Alas! I could not help you.”
Indirect: He exclaimed in grief that he could not help me.

Direct: He observed, “How dirty the house is!”
Indirect: He exclaimed that the house was very dirty.

Direct: He said, “What a fool I am!”
Indirect: He exclaimed that he was a great fool.

Direct: “Help! Help!” shouted the woman.
Indirect: The woman shouted for help.

Direct: He said, “Goodbye. my friends!”
Indirect: He bade goodbye to his friends./He bade his friends goodbye.

Direct: He said, “By Jove! what a good news.”
Indirect: He swore by Jove that it was a very good news.

Direct: She said to me, “Merry Christmas.”
Indirect: She wished me a merry Chritmas.

Direct: He said, “Poor fellow! How changed you are.”
Indirect: He pitied the man and exclaimed that he was greatly changed.

Direct: The old man said to him, “Fie! You are such a coward.”
Indirect: The old man exclaimed that it was shameful that he was such a coward.

Direct: He said, “Who knew that this would happen!”
Indirect: He said that no one knew that (that) would happen.


কিছু বিশেষ Narration

Mixed Sentences

• যখন Direct Speech-এ এক প্রকারের বাক্য পরপর থাকে, তখন Reporting Verb একবার ব্যবহৃত হয় এবং বাক্যগুলো and দ্বারা যুক্ত হয়।
• যখন Direct Speech-এ বিভিন্ন প্রকার বাক্য থাকে তখন Indirect Speech-এ ভিন্ন ভিন্ন Reporting Verb ব্যবহার করতে হয়।
• Then added that, further said that, also said that ইত্যাদি দ্বারার সহজে বাক্যগুলো সংযুক্ত করা যায়।

Direct: I said to him, “Who are you? What do you want?”
Indirect: I asked him who he was and what he wanted.

Direct: Anisa said to me, “I left my book at home. Can you lend me your book?”
Indirect: Anisa told me that she had left her book at home and asked me if I could lend her my book.

Direct: He said to his friend, “What time is it? My watch has stopped.”
Indirect: He asked his friend what time it was and added that his watch had stopped.

Yes/No Question

• Yes/No-কে Indirect Speech-এ আনতে হলে Direct Speech-এ যে Verb উহ্য আছে তাকে আনতে হয় অথবা ঐ Verb-এর পরিবর্তে Do Verb আনতে হয়।
• ‘replied in affirmative/negative’ এড়িয়ে যাওয়া ভালো।

Direct: The said to the boy, “Have you done your homework?” The boy replied, “No.”
Indirect: The teacher asked the boy is he had done his homework and the boy replied that he had not.

Direct: The host said to her, “Have all the guests arrived?” She replied, “Yes, madam.”
Indirect: The host asked her if all the guests had arrived and she replied politely that they had.


এবার নিচের Direct Speech-গুলোর সঠিক Indirect Speech চিহ্নিত করে ফেলো!


নিলয় অবশেষে কোন Sentence কীভাবে বলবে সে সম্পর্কে ধারণা পেয়ে গেলো। তোমরাও তোমাদের বন্ধুদের এই ধারণা দিতে শেয়ার করে নাও এই স্মার্টবুকটি।