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যে Part of speech দুই বা ততোধিক Word, Phrase বা Clause এর মধ্যে সংযোগ স্থাপন করে, তাকে Conjunction বলে।

Conjunction ৩ প্রকার – 

  1. Coordinating Conjunction.
  2. Subordinating Conjunction.
  3. Correlative Conjunction.

Coordinating Conjunction:

দুই বা ততোধিক একই জাতীয় Clause-কে যুক্ত করলে, তাকে Coordinating Conjunction বলে। Coordinating Conjunction চার প্রকার – 

  • Cumulative or Copulative Conjunction: দুই বা ততোধিক একই জাতীয় Clause-কে যুক্ত করে। যেমন: And, As well as, Also, Too.
  • Alternative Conjunction: দুইয়ের মধ্যে একটি বেছে নিতে ব্যবহৃত হয়। যেমন: Either… or, Neither… nor.
  • Adversative Conjunction: দুটি ভাবের মধ্যে তুলনা বোঝাতে ব্যবহৃত হয়। যেমন: But, however, only, while.
  • Illative Conjunction: কারণ বা অনুমান বোঝাতে ব্যবহৃত হয়। যেমন: So, then, therefore, consequently.

Subordinating Conjunction:

Principal Clause-এর সাথে এক বা একাধিক Subordinating Clause যুক্ত করলে তাকে Subordinating Conjunction বলে।  Subordinating Conjunction ৯ প্রকার – 

  • Apposition: Rahima said that she would be late.
  • Cause or Reason: I should maintain a diet because I am getting fat.
  • Purpose: Run fast lest you might miss the train.
  • Condition: If you work hard, you will succeed.
  • Concession: Although she is rich, she does not help the poor.
  • Comparison: My watch is as expensive as hers.
  • Manner: You should use the device as it is instructed.
  • Time: She has been studying since morning.
  • Effect: He is so tall that he can not stand properly on a bus.

Correlative Conjunction:

দুটি Conjunction যুক্ত হয়ে একটি Conjunction-এর মত ব্যবহৃত হলে তাকে Correlative Conjunction বলে।

Uses of some conjunction:

    1. Unless, Until কোনো clause-এ থাকলে, Clause-টি Negative অর্থ প্রকাশ করে। যেমন: Stay until I come back.
    2. Before, After: Before-এর আগের এবং After-এর পরের Clause-টি Past Perfect Tense হয়। যেমন: I had reached home before my father came.
    3. Since:
      • সময় বোঝাতে- We came home early since mother had cooked delicious food.
      • কারণ বোঝাতে- Since the vacation started, we planned for a party.
    4. When: 
      • একটি ঘটনা সংঘটিত হওয়ার সময় অন্য ঘটনা সংঘটিত হলে – When the lights went off, we enjoyed the moonlight.
      • একটি ঘটনা সংঘটনের কারণে অন্য একটি ঘটনা সংঘটিত হলে – When he opened the window, the cold breeze entered the room.
    5. As, Because: As he drank a lot of water, he felt nauseous.
    6. That: The reason for my fitness is that I follow a healthy diet.
    7. Lest: Lest + Subject এর পরে should/might + মূল Verb এর present form. যেমন: Run fast lest you might miss your chance.
    8. If: If you come early, we will have a cup of tea.
    9. Had: Had I met him before, I would have taken a photo.
    10. Were: Were I a millionaire, I would help the people in need.
    11. As… as, So… as: As… as Affirmative Sentence-এ এবং So… as Negative Sentence-এ ব্যবহৃত হয়। যেমন: She is not so intelligent as her sister.
    12. Either … or, Neither … nor: Either she or her sister has cooked the food.
    13. Not only… but also: He is not only studious but also smart.
    14. No sooner … than, Scarcely … when, Hardly … before: প্রথম অংশ Past Perfect Tense ও পরের অংশ Past Indefinite Tense হবে এবং Subject-এর পূর্বে Had বসবে।
      • No sooner had we seen the thief than he ran away.
      • Scarcely had he opened the door when the bell rang.
      • Hardly had he entered the office before the electricity was gone.